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The way that elements are arranged within the frame of a photograph creates a focal point and can affect how the viewer reacts:

Wide Shot (WS) Medium Shot (MS)
A wide view of the scene can help describe the location and time of day. The viewer naturally looks to a point two-thirds from edge of the photograph. In this shot, the eyes are in this golden section and so make the girl look friendly and reliable.
Close-Up Shot (CU) Low-Angle Shot (LA)
Close-ups of peoplesí faces can help focus on details such as their reaction to an event. Putting the camera low down and looking upwards can make a person look tall and threatening.

Digital Camera Settings

Digital cameras also have automatic settings that make choices about how photographs are taken, however you can switch to manual mode to get a much better control of each shot.

Flash A quick flash of light whilst the shot is taken can help you see nearby objects in the dark more clearly.
Digital Zoom This can crop (cut) away all the unwanted parts of a photograph around the edges.
Optical Zoom This can move the lens forwards to help magnify the shot and make objects far way appear nearer.
Exposure time You can change how long the camera shutter is open for. Longer exposure times are useful at night time to let the camera capture as much light as possible. Shorter exposure times are useful to take photographs with motion blur.
Macro The macro feature helps the camera focus the lens on close-up objects.
Image Resolution This is measured in megapixels. Photographs taken with a high resolution (with lots of megapixels) will be more detailed than those with a low resolution (with few megapixels).

Digital cameras are more useful than film cameras because they let you review and evaluate photographs on-the-spot. This can be helpful if you decide one shot is not very effective because you can just re-take it.

Image Effects

You can usually make some small changes to images in a multimedia authoring program to help create particular tones:

Black and White Sepia Washout
Used to show a photograph as part of a flash back. Used to make a photograph look old. Used for the background on title slides.

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